Disruptive Behaviour in Teams activity
Because each person has motivation for self preservation the reason they may be disruptive to the team is either because they “believe” they can do better. Pushing people harder they also believe the team can do better. The team members may have no incentive to try to succeed or they may not know how to succeed in the role they have been given. This needs to be managed with proper mentoring of the under performer or reassessment of their committment to the team.
Other reason for low performance: My Hypothesis:
Procrastination! which is caused by being brought up as a child treated like hte centre of the universe and always getting what they want. Leaders learn to work hard and continuously learn.
This essay will argue that Steve Jobs used all six distinct leadership styles explained by Goleman (2000) and this brought back Apple Inc. from the brink of oblivion and it into the most valuable company on the planet. To be able to reproduce the success of Apple Inc. we need to understand why Steve Jobs was such an effective leader.
I will show how Steve Jobs applied the following six distinct leadership styles during his time as CEO of Applied Inc.
“Coercive leaders demand immediate compliance. Authoritative leaders mobilize people toward a vision. Affiliative leaders create emotional bonds and harmony. Democratic leaders build consensus through participation. Pacesetting leaders expect excellence and self-direction. And coaching leaders develop people for the future.” (Goleman, 2000)
Steve Jobs was not born a perfect leader according to the Goleman leadership style but he was very open to learning lesson. A bit of background on Steve Jobs, firstly his widow, Laurene Powell Jobs, saw him as a “Learning Machine” and he learnt from his many and relentlessly applied those lessons but Steve always preference to talk about future rather then the past. Steve was always changing! (Tetzeil, 2015)
Steve Jobs had a coercisve style of leadership when he was CEO of Apple the first time round. We should not take this as a negative, this was the time Apple culture formed. This is where employees knew that perfection was important when working in Apple. When Steve came back to Apple as CEO employees knew what to expect to be able to work well with him and therefore he did not need to use that Coercive style as often to get the perfection he required. Tim Cook commented about Steve, he said Steve could then focus on his strength of “… the ongoing business he cared about – marketing, design, and the project introductions”, (Schlender & Tetzeil, 2015, p. 80)
There was a noticeable change to Steve Jobs style of leadership during his second coming when he returned to the positon of Apple’s CEO. He had matured and as he grew more confident he allowed himself to be surrounded by strong, opinionated executives who felt comfortable to argue with him. During Steve’s time at Pixar he learnt to become open to the talent of others and to be inspired by their talents “…but he also inspired them to do amazing things he know he couldn’t do himself” said John Lasseter, they director of Toy Story and The Incredibles. (Tetzeil, 2015, p. 73)
Bill Gates said, “That is a really crash team that bounded with each other in toughness. I mean, you can point to every member of that team and say, ‘Okay, he earned his pay, he earned his pay.’ There’s no weakness in that team.” (Tetzeil, 2015, p. 74) Steve chose a team that had passion and work ethics similar to himself but talents that he did not have. To build this executive team Steve applied the following three leadership style; Authoritative leaders mobilize people toward a vision. Affiliative leaders create emotional bonds and harmony. Democratic leaders build consensus through participation.
Steve Also learnt from Bill Gates about incremental change and this is where we saw software and hardware upgrades coming from Apples products. “Jobs did have a genius for synthesizing what Apple learned as its product line expanded. That’s what fed the perfection of iPod, iPhone, and iPad…” (Tetzeil, 2015, p. 76)
After Steve was diagnosed with cancer he exhibited they coaching leaders develop people for the future style. Tim Cook said Steve cared deeply about things, was very passionate and he wanted things to be perfect . “Steve cared deeply about the why of decisions… This is why he came up with Apple U. [University], so we could tain and educate the next generation of leaders by teaching them all we had been through, and how we had made the terrible decisions we made and also how we made the really good ones.” Said Tim Cook (Schlender & Tetzeil, 2015, p. 80)
Steve also showed pacesetting leadership expecting excellence and self-direction from Tim Cook. Tim Cook’s describes his conversation with Steve, “He [Steve] says, ‘You make all the decisions… You mean that if I [Tim Cook] review an ad and I like it, it should just run without your okay”’ And he laughed and said, ‘Well, I hope you’d at last ask me!’” (Schlender & Tetzeil, 2015, p. 82)
Most importantly Steve’s pacesetting leadership style he coached his team to make sure they do not just copy and ask “’What would Steve do?’, He abhorred the way the Disney culsture stagnated after Walter Disney’s death, and he was determeed for that not to happen at Apple.’” Said Tim Cook. (Schlender & Tetzeil, 2015, p. 82)
In conclusion Steve Jobs show all six leadership traits outlined by Goleman but showing any one behavior when needed. During hi early career when first forming Apple he showed the coercive style which as Goleman outlines is used in a crisis time when sales and profits are falling but also has the of creating a reign of terror and can get the CEO fired. (Goleman, 2000) This is exactly what happened to Steve Jobs. Steve came back to Apple as CEO with a toned down coercive style but he used it to drive make sure employees had a similar work ethic to himself. The difference this time is he allowed his leadership team to drive the business while he focused on his own strengths in marketing. As Steve’s time as CEO evolved he used less of the top of the following list and more of the leadership skills down the list:
Every leader should try to evolve the company culture so they that move down that list of leadership styles to finally position of coaching.
Goleman, D. (2000). LEADERSHIP THAT GETS RESULTS. Harvard Business Review, p. 78.
Schlender, B., & Tetzeil, R. (2015, April). Life is too short. Fast Company, pp. 79-82.
Tetzeil, R. (2015, April). The REal Legacy of Steve Jobs. Fast Company, pp. 70-76.
Leaders need to be show the right behavior at the right time. The leaders singular job is to get long term results.
The leader must communicate a vision and re-enforce the companies culture. He/she must make sure all employees are customer focused.
A leader must have emotional intelligence and be surrounded by people with diverse backgrounds and experience. This also means the leader must have exceptional listening skills. The diversity in experience and cultural backgrounds helps the leader get better feedback and ideas to better understand new opportunities. The greatest leaders need to be one step ahead of the competition and empathy is key to understand what is needed. A leader must be the opposite of Machiavellian, they must be open and approachable but know when to make strong decisions.
The leader must build a talented motivated team.
There is a problem today with what criteria a company should use to choose its CEO. So what makes a great leader? There are many elements that make a great leader. To put the company in a position of profit the leader must be chosen carefully from within or outside the company.
Fifty-eight percent of the companies cited significant talent gaps for critical leadership roles. That means that despite corporate training programs, off-sites, assessments, coaching, all of these things, more than half the companies had failed to grow enough great leaders. You may be asking yourself, is my company helping me to prepare to be a great 21st-century leader? The odds are, probably not. (Torres, 2013)
To begin with a company must have a corporate culture based on good values. The board choosing a CEO needs to select a person that fits the company’s culture and values or choose a person that will be able to change the culture and values for the better. The importance of the CEO’s honesty and values cannot be overlooked. This can be seen in a documentary about the transformation of Bogotá, Columbia: Transforming the values and culture of a city is analogous to a company.
“The real secret behind Mockus and Peñalosa’s [Mayor’s of Bogata] success is that they are two people characterized by extreme honesty and integrity in everything they do. They are two leaders who have the necessary courage to stay true to their visions, even when the opinion polls go against them. Unlike other politicians who are controlled by strategies and tactics, they have not been driven by a lust for power, only by their ideas and philosophies. And if there is a lesson to be learned by their story, it must be that the change they have managed to bring about could never have come from the traditional political system. It could only have come from the outside.” (Dalsgaard, 2014)
Furthermore a leader must be at least one step ahead of the competition. Depending on the industry, they need to access what is important to their clients and to society as a whole. More often than not a sustainable business model is what is expected,
“There is mounting pressure from stakeholders — employees, customers, consumers, supply chain partners, competitors, investors, lenders, insurers, nongovernmental organizations, media, the government and society overall” (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009)
To be on the safe side a leader should drive the values of the company towards a product portfolio that fits a sustainable business model. Businesses are using their sustainable product portfolio to gain market dominance over their competitors. “Nike has turned sustainability prompted design changes into materials savings and positioning gains.” (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009)
A great leader must not go too far. They must stick to their values and promote a genuine sustainable business that still solves a problem for its clients. The leader cannot go too far either in regards to a promoting a sustainable product portfolio.
“…consumers evaluate firms differently when they attribute a firm’s societal initiative to public-serving motivations … When motivations are considered self-serving, attitudes toward firms are likely to diminish; whereas when motivations are deemed public-serving attitudes are more likely to be enhanced” (Raska & Shaw)
To hire the best people the company must also showcase its good corporate citizenship;
“The first reward is the ability to attract the very best people. Until recently, many good graduates would not consider a career in the oil industry; now they will consider a career in an alternative energy business, even if it is inside an oil company.” (Raska & Shaw)
An example of a successful company thanks for a proven corporate culture is Ericsson, it has the following values; professionalism, respect and perseverance. Each employee is required to know follow these values. The company was founded in 1876 and is the current market leader in Telecommunications. The CEO, Hans Vestberg, and the leadership team are aligned to the corporate culture and values. They are also continuously investing in research and development and looking to be one or more steps ahead of the competition. The products and services sold are constantly reducing in power consumption and impact on the environment. Ericsson has a mission focused across the business to improve sustainability & corporate responsibility. (Ericsson)
In conclusion what makes a great leader is the ability to inspire the company to follow a successful corporate culture and values. The leader also needs to keep the company one step ahead of the competition by understanding what clients want but he/she must also see into the future and understand how to invest in the long term. The leader must ensure the company has products with a genuine focus on sustainability. The next generation of employees is very conscious of the environmental impact of companies and they have choice so any good company leader must take note of public pressure to run a sustainable business. There are many examples of businesses with great leaders, the question is not if they should hire from within but that the next leader should have the correct values and vision of the future.
Dalsgaard, A. (Director). (2014). Bogotá Improving Civic Behavior Cities on Speed [Motion Picture].
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (2009, Fall). The Business of Sustainability. MITSloan Management Review.
Raska, D., & Shaw, D. (n.d.). When is going green good for company image? In D. Raska, & D. Shaw, When is going green good for company image? (pp. 326-347). Management Research Review.
Torres, R. (2013, October). https://www.ted.com/talks/roselinde_torres_what_it_takes_to_be_a_great_leader. Retrieved February 2015, from https://www.ted.com: https://www.ted.com/talks/roselinde_torres_what_it_takes_to_be_a_great_leader
In an organisation culture and values influence peoples behavior. Employee behavior aligned to the companies values is one criteria for choosing which employees to keep during any restructuring. This selective pressure is required to evolve the business in the right direction. Defining the values is an important part of the CEO’s job.
Remember structure helps us remember
- Benefits following through on it
Matt Abrahams,Think Fast, Talk Smart: Communication Techniques, online video, 4th December 2014 ,Stanford Graduate School of Business, viewed 18th March 2015, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAnw168huqA>
La Trobe MBA’s subject “PP SKILLS AND DEVELOPMENT” requires setting up an E-portfolio in week 3.
We are at the end of week 2 now. This should be interesting but at the moment I have an essay to complete and the beings for reviewing CV’s.
So far I have posted on the courses internal forum:
“Great leaders are not heads down. Great leaders see around corners, shaping their
future, not just reacting to it” Roselinde Torres, 2014, TED Talk, “What Makes A Great Leader” (Transcript available.)
In an unpredictable present and facing an uncertain future, what might be a good portfolio of qualities for a business leader hoping to grow a sustainable yet profitable business? Using relevant literature, discuss.
Profits come from selling something that people want to pay for and also people want to be associated with. Being a leader you must be able to positiong a business with products and services to not embarress people associated with it. This is a competitive advantage especially if competitors take short cuts associated with increasing their short term profits at the expense of the environment.
“Nike has turned sustainability prompted design changes into materials savings and positioning gains.” (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009, p. 6).
“There is mounting pressure from stakeholders — employees, customers, consumers, supply chain partners, competitors, investors, lenders, insurers, nongovernmental organizations, media, the government and society overall — to act” (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009, p. 6).
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009, The Business of Sustainability, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, viewed 10 March 2015, http://www.monitorpro.si/media/objave/dokumenti/2010/4/20/sas___the_business_of_sustainability.pdf
My review of another MBA students topic is below
“Unless we take action on climate change, future generations will be roasted, toasted, fried and grilled”. International Monetary Fund managing director Christine Lagarde, 2014. Despite the dramatic language, Christine Lagarde is making a valuable point. What should be the role of business organisations in mitigating the effects of climate change on the economy and the environment?
Gradual early adoption of changes will decrease the burden on businesses and in turn the economy.
“The reasons that they are making these emission reductions are decidedly strategic. They are searching for ways to be prepared for the long term should GHG emission reductions become mandatory” (Hoffman, 2004).
Andrew J. Hoffman, 2004, “The Business Logic behind Voluntary Greenhouse Gas Reductions”, Working Paper, University of Michigan, accessed 10 March 2015, < umich.edu>
Just my opinion on the thoughts and impact of the statement from International Monetary Fund managing director Christine Lagarde –
Assumption 1 Financial investment banks and their fund managers control most of the investments through retirement and managed funds and therefore are the key people to influence.
Assumption 2 The financial markets being much larger then governments
My concern is do people and more importantly financial investment bank fund managers care about the environment more then short and long term profits?
Fund managers are required but law and the rules governing holding a Chartered Financial Analysts (CFA) license, to allocate assets for their clients based on risk and that is generally associated with their clients age and time to retirement. Younger clients more often have high risk investments and older clients more often have low risk investments but the fund manager is required to regularly confirm a change in their clients goals. (http://www.cfapubs.org/toc/ccb/2014/2014/6)
(http://www.monitorpro.si/media/objave/dokumenti/2010/4/20/sas___the_business_of_sustainability.pdf) If the long term pressure is for businesses with sustainable models to have an competitive advantage then I understand fund managers will choose to invest in these businesses for their low risk clients. If the young generation believes that climate change is a serious issue then the pressure will be for fund managers to invest in sustainable business for both their high risk clients.
Depending on how the evidence is presented to the world the pressure, if the world believes in negative climate change then society will force investments into sustainable businesses and it is the profitable position for a business to go with the evidence that climate change is real and building a sustainable business. Evolution takes time and is based on pressure, businesses need to take care not to invest in sustainable business too early before society is ready to recognize its importance and reward them for their position.
I believe the only issue here is education and making people care. Education is the responsibility of governments.